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Query idempotence

A query is idempotent if it can be applied multiple times without changing the result of the initial application. For example:

Idempotence matters for retries and speculative query executions . The driver will bypass those features if the Statement#isIdempotent() flag is set to false , to ensure that the statement does not get executed more than once.

In most cases, you must set that flag manually. The driver does not parse query strings, so it can’t infer it automatically (except for statements coming from the query builder, see below).

Statements start out as non-idempotent by default. You can override the flag on each statement:

The default is also configurable: if you want all statements to start out as idempotent, do this:

Any statement on which you didn’t call setIdempotent gets this default value.

Bound statements inherit the flag from the prepared statement they were created from:

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DSL tries to infer the isIdempotent flag on the statements it generates. The following statements will be marked non-idempotent :


counter updates:

prepend, append or deletion operations on lists:

queries that insert the result of a function call or a “raw” string in a column (or as an element in a collection column):

This is a conservative approach, since the driver can’t guess whether a function is idempotent, or what a raw string contains. It might yield false negatives, that you’ll have to fix manually.

lightweight transactions (see the next section for a detailed explanation):

If these rules produce a false negative, you can manually override the flag on the built statement:

As explained in the previous section, the query builder considers lightweight transactions as non-idempotent. This might sound counter-intuitive, as these queries can sometimes be safe to execute multiple times. For example, consider the following query:

If we execute it twice, the IF condition will fail the second time, so the second execution will do nothing and v will still have the value 4.

However, the problem appears when we consider multiple clients executing the query with retries:

One important aspect of lightweight transactions is linearizability : given a set of concurrent operations on a column from different clients, there must be a way to reorder them to yield a sequential history that is correct. From our clients’ point of view, there were two operations:

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Download this page as a pdf Pigments Checker (357 downloads)

We often examine a painting with transmitted visible light and infrared radiation. In particular, Transmitted Infrared photography () is part of the Technical Photography documentation and allows to detect underdrawing and pentimenti. It is a very effective imaging method since pigments become even more transparent than in the usual photography method.

So, we are releasing a new Pigments Checker with a translucent support,such that of a canvas painting. Now you can use Pigments Checker to practice also those useful and effective imaging methods implying transmitted radiation. With Pigments Checker v.5 you can now practice Transmitted Infrared photography () which is part of the Technical Photography documentation and allows to detect underdrawing and pentimenti . It is a very effective imaging method since pigments become even more transparent than in the usual photography method.This method is useful for art on translucent supports, such as paintings on canvas, drawings on paper and historical documents and manuscripts. The lamp providing radiation should face the back of the painting while the camera focus on the front. The lamp should be shielded so that only the radiation through the canvas can reach the camera. Any other source of radiation in the examination room should be turned off to avoid diffused light (actually diffused infrared).

often provides better images compared to for detecting underdrawing, underpainting, pentimenti, or just the actual build-up technique of the painter to shape of the figures. is so powerful in particular for white pigments, such as lead white and titanium white , the most common in the art, very important white pigments in art, are the most used, respectively, before and after about 1920′. These pigments reflect a lot of the incoming infrared and, consequently, their hiding power is barely affected by infrared coming from the front. They will just reflect most of the and they will not produce contrast between the ground and the underdrawing. When the infrared radiation comes from the back (transmission), the infrared can penetrate the paint and the underdrawing becomes apparent in the resulted image.

Have you heard of this reverse sear thing? It’s what all the cool kids are doing. Traditionally, a restaurant method of cooking steak involved searing over incredibly high heat, then transferring to an oven to finish on a moregentle heatuntil done. The reverse sear method pretty much just flips the order, and involves first cooking the meat on a very low heat before searing the outside on a super hot surface.

The basic idea is that with reverse sear,you have greater control overthe Maillard Reaction (that magical process that turns the cooked edges of meatsyummy and brown), because you’re making sure the high heat only comes into playright at the end and that the steak inside will be perfect. So, instead of an internal ring of different “doneness” your steak will be perfectly medium all the way through, save for the very outside.

Truth be told, I love my steaks rare, so a regular pan sear works for me, but there’s no denying this is the ultimate cook method to achieve a perfect medium/medium-rare throughout. If you wanna get super meat-nerd about it, consider removing the steak about 5 degrees before it reaches doneness, as it will continue to cook slightly from residual heat during resting.

You will definitely need a meat thermometer to do this correctly – the ‘ol palm pinch test is not gunna cut it here! Back in the day I used to use a cheapie stick-thermometer, until I started noticing bad inconsistencies and realised it wasn’t calibrated, and whenthere’s just a few degrees difference between rare and medium, you wanna get this stuff right! These days, I prefer to use a Thermapen which has an instant read and takes the tempoff the very thin tip of the probe. That means less heat loss if I’m opening the grill or smoker to check something, and no nasty huge probe marks.Put it this way, investing a little in perfectly cooked meat is cheaper than ruining your nice quality steaks!

Though it ultimately takes longer to cook with reverse sear than other methods,it’s ready to eat immediately because you’ve rested the steak prior to the sear – so you can eat it nice’n’hot!I use an oven/heavy cast iron pan to reverse sear, but you can definitelyexperiment with a smoking/grilling combo too. If you’re looking for an extra secret weapon to help you achieve an incredible crust and appearance on the sear, you wanna check out this Hardcore Carnivore rub .

Thomas Bill Search

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